By Gary Kaunonen
The copper mines of Michigan's Copper kingdom, within the higher Peninsula, have been energetic for a hundred and fifty years, from 1845 till 1995. the various mine employees tried to unionize, with a view to receive greater operating stipulations, wages, and hours.
The Michigan miners have been unsuccessful of their struggles with mine vendors, which got here to a climax within the 1913–14 Copper nation Strike. This nine-month conflict among employees represented by means of the Western Federation of Miners (WFM) and the 3 significant mining businesses within the quarter took a very nasty activate Christmas Eve, 1913, at a celebration for strikers and their households geared up through the WFM. As many as 500 humans have been within the Italian Benevolent Society corridor in Calumet, Michigan, while anyone reportedly shouted "fire." there has been no fireplace, however it is anticipated that 73–79 humans, greater than 60 of them teenagers, died within the stampede for the exit.
by contrast dramatic backdrop, Gary Kaunonen tells the tale of Finnish immigrants to Copper nation. via analyzing the written list and fabric tradition of Finnish immigrant proletarians-analyzing constructions, cultural associations, and guides of the socialist-unionist media—Kaunonen provides a brand new intensity to our knowing of the time and position, the occasions and a people.
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Challenge Accepted: A Finnish Immigrant Response to Industrial America in Michigan's Copper Country by Gary Kaunonen